Carl Sagan (1934 to 1996), the American astronomer who popularized his field (as well as maroon turtlenecks), was an advocate of marijuana. Under the pseudonym of “Mr. X,” he penned an article advocating cannabis use, which was published in the 1971 anthology “Marihuana Reconsidered.” He wrote how marijuana had inspired some of his work. Other prominent scientists who experimented with pot use include Stephen J. Gould, Richard Feynman, Kary Mullis, Sigmund Freud, Francis Crick, and Margaret Mead.

Sigmund Freud (1856 to 1939), the father of psychoanalysis, was also a pot user, but he also delved into stronger substances.  Early in his career, Freud believed that cocaine could potentially cure a wide range of  mental and physical problems, a theory that he posited in his 1884 paper “On Coca.” In the 1890s, as many cocaine users and addicts died from overdose, Freud stopped advocating for the substance and eventually discontinued his own cocaine use in 1896.


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