A. GENERAL POINTS
1. Journal articles
The DUJS accepts undergraduate science articles of all kinds. What the DUJS looks for is good science and good writing, both of which involve objectivity, clarity, and precision. Content and style both play a role in selecting articles for publication.
Content: Most of the articles are literature reviews, popular science articles, or submissions of original research from a class or independent study. On occasion, other literary content that is related to science, such as poems, plays, and experiences are published at the discretion of the Editorial Board.
Length: 1,500-3,500 words
Naming: Please name the file as follows: LastName_Topic_Version.doc
For example: Smith_cardiac arrest_draft1.doc
Also please include this information in the subject line of all blitzes regarding the article.
2. News articles (online)
Content: News articles are assigned at meetings, and either cover Events or Publications.
Headline: Should sum up the primary focus of the article. The reader should be able to know what the whole article is about just by reading the title. Should be less than eight words
Lede: 1-3 sentences stating the key points in the article without going into details. Should cover the essentials—Who, What, When Where, and Why. Should provide the most interesting point in the article, motivating the reader to continue to find out more.
- Each paragraph should be only 2-3 sentences long, for ease of reading
- Keep sentences short and clear.
- Follow the inverse pyramid structure: Start broad and general, and then narrow in:
- Start with a general science background describing the subject and how it fits in.
- Next add details: describe what the study/discovery is, brief methods, findings, and quotes from researchers: This is where the What and the Why are developed in detail
- End with implications of the study, interesting questions or potential for further study and future research
Sources: Attribute everything—quotes, facts and other information—to your sources using appropriate in-text citation. For example, “According to X, a leading medical dictionary,” “John Doe elaborates,” “NatureNews reported” or “…, said Jane Doe.”
Audience: Write for an intelligent undergraduate who is not familiar with the subject. Define key terms and only use technical jargon if you plan to use it more than once, otherwise find a more general way to phrase it. Explain the subject in a clear and engaging manner, to convert a lecture or publication aimed at specialists into a synopsis that is both interesting and informative to the general reader.
Length: About 400-600 words.
File name: Please name the file in the following format:
- For example (the sample news article below): 07_22_ Flanagan _ scleroderma.doc
- Sample: Please see section C below for an excellent sample news article.
3. In general
Style: Aim for Precision, Clarity, and Objectivity at all times.
- Precision: Ambiguous writing detracts meaning and may cause confusion. Use specific, precise phrases in place of vague ones.
- For example, use “positively correlated” instead of “related,” or “New with 25% higher absorbancy!” instead of just “New and improved!”
- Avoid figuritive language
- Clarity: Let the reader focus on the content of the article, not the sentence structure. Complex words and long, twisted sentences multiply any confusion inherent in understanding a new scientific topic.
- Avoid esoteric terminology—define all terms that may be unfamiliar to an educated non-specialist, and only introduce them (with a definition!) if they will be used multiple times.
- Use short, simple sentences.
- Use simple words instead of more complex ones. You might think it sounds educated and highly intelligent, but it just detracts from the writing.
- Objectivity: Make claims based on facts, not personal opinions, intuition, or emotion
- Active voice: Use it! Active voice is more engaging, and well, active than passive.
- (Passive) Ability was increased by drug X ⇒ (Active) Drug X increased ability.
- In some cases, the passive voice is acceptable, especially in methodology sections of research reports: “Caffeine was administered twice daily in 2 mg doses.” However in news articles, “Researchers administered caffeine…” is preferred.
- Avoid clichés.
- Do not capitalize the word “professor” or a department name.
- Do not use the term “Dr.”
- Do not include middle initials.
- Do not include endnotes or footnotes.
- Sentences should have one space between them.
- Convert all dashes to “em” dashes—like this.
- Spell out the word “percent” in the body text of articles, instead of using the percent sign (%). The percent sign is acceptable within charts, tables, and figures.
- Italicize Latin phrases such as: in vivo, in vitro, et al. as well as full scientific names. However, genus names alone do not need to be italicized. E.g.: Drosophila melanogaster vs. Drosophila
- Numbers one through nine must be spelled out, while numbers 10 and beyond can be written in numerals (Except when describing data measurements, ie: There were nine samples in total, with an average concentration of 9 ppm.)
- Put one space between numbers and units: 9 pmm, 35 °C
- “Writing in the Sciences” The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/sciences.html
- “News Writing” UBC Faculty of Applied Science http://www.apsc.ubc.ca/faculty-staff/resources/communications/newswriting.php
DUJS follows Science formatting:
Points to note:
- Place references in the text within in parenthesis and before the period.
- List each reference just once and refer to it using the same unique number throughout the article.
- Number references in the order they appear in the text, followed by figure and table captions:
- Ex: In 1913, Santiago Ramon y Cajal proclaimed that neurogenesis, or the birth of new neurons, occurs exclusively during prenatal development (1). It was difficult to imagine that the adult brain could permit new neurons into the existing network, and consequently, Cajal’s idea persisted for almost a century (2).
- And then list them in that order at the end:
1. S. Ramon y Cajal, Degeneration and Regeneration of the Nervous System. (University of Oxford Press, 1913).
2. G. Ming, H. Song, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 28, 223 (2005).
- Multiple references: When citing more than one reference, use commas and dashes as necessary, with no spaces in between numbers:
- The sky is, in fact, purple (1-3,5,8).
- Acknowledgements: Unlike Science, which places acknowledgements last in the reference list, the DUJS places these at the end of the article under a separate heading “Acknowledgements.”
- Automatic references: See www.refworks.com for help in automatically compiling a reference list. RefWorks lets you add tags wherever you want references to go in the text, and automatically generates the final copy with the selected style — pick Science from the drop-down list! It is highly advised to enter in references here simultaneously as research is being done; it becomes much harder and more time consuming after the fact.
- Journal titles should be properly abbreviated, as specified in the CalTech Library Journal Title Abbreviations. Please refer to http://library.caltech.edu/reference/abbreviations/ for each journal article cited.
1. N. Tang, Atmos. Environ. 14, 819-834 (1980). [one author]
2. J. C. Smith, M. Field, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 51, 930-935 (1964). [2-4 authors]
3. J. C. Smith et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 51, 930-935 (1964). [five or more authors]
1. M. Lister, Fundamentals of Operating Systems (Springer-Verlag, New York, ed. 3, 1984), pp. 7-11. [third edition]
2. J. B. Carroll, Ed., Language, Thought and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1956).
Author, Title (Date published). Available at URL (Date accessed).
1. T. Malik, Shuttle’s Retirement May Affect ISS Construction, NASA Chief Says (2005). Available at http://www.space.com/missionlaunches/050512_rtf_shuttle.html (29 September 2008).
2. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (2008). Available at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/coronary-bypass-surgery/HB00022 (4 March 2008).
[when author not listed]
1. A. Given, Personal interview, 22 November 2006.
1. H. K. Lim, “Managing the liberalization process” (2005). Speech Delivered at the Association of Banks AGM Dinner, Singapore, 25 Jun 2005.
2. News Articles
In-text citations: See A.2.Sources above.
Reference list: Under the heading, “Further reading:”, include all the references used.
Note that however awesome the article, the website is still not an acceptable scholarly source of information.
C. Sample News Article
Source: DUJS website, 7/22/08. News article by Alison Flanagan ’10
|Link between gene expression and scleroderma discovered||Title|
|Alison Flanagan ’10||Author|
|An association between gene expression and disease severity in scleroderma patients has been found, Dartmouth Medical School researchers reported online in the journal PLoS One on July 16.||First sentence reiterates title|
|The chronic autoimmune disease, which affects about four times as many women as men, causes skin hardening and internal organ dysfunction, as well as other related conditions. The most severe cases may be systemic and life-threatening. Unfortunately, the basic processes underlying the disease remain elusive.||Background|
|Since relatively little is known about the disease, it has previously been categorized by clinical findings alone, such as by measuring the extent of skin thickening. While two main classifications exist for the disease, limited and diffuse, the latter of which is more severe, this new genetic data shows that the disease is much more diverse than can be observed simply by clinical observations.||How new work fits in with previous research|
|The research team, headed by genetics professor Michael Whitfield, analyzed the gene activity of 28 patients and six control subjects using data from DNA microarrays. Two skin biopsies were taken from each patient, from the forearm and another from the back. Interestingly, although samples taken from the back appear clinically unaffected, they showed the same harmful genes as the affected skin, demonstrating the systemic nature of the disease.||The actual study methods|
|Four distinct groups characterized by specific gene expression profiles were found, and a 177-gene signature was discovered shown to correlate with the severity of this skin disease. Different gene expression was found in patients with limited and diffuse scleroderma, both of which were distinct from the control group. Considered to be the most extensive gene analysis study of scleroderma to date, this research is the first to show that scleroderma can be classified by patterns of gene expression alone.||Findings|
|Ultimately, the aim is to use these genetic signatures to predict the disease trajectory, such as by identifying aggressive cases, and then treat patients accordingly. The ability to now combine clinical phenotypic data and gene analysis opens the possibility for targeted treatment and more accurate diagnoses.||Implications and potential for answering questions|